One of the principal methods of promoting cultural activity in Spain is the award of prizes, of which there is a very large number, ranging from the highly prestigious Prince of Asturias Prizes to those awarded by local government bodies and small private foundations. The most prestigious literary prize is the Cervantes Prize, followed by the Premio National de las Letras Españolas (National Prize for Literature), worth 5m pesetas, awarded for lifetime achievement in literature. Some are offered by publishing houses (e.g. Planeta), as a way of identifying and promoting writers with a high sales potential. The publisher Espasa-Calpe offers the Espasa essay prize (5m pesetas), won in 1996 by Manuel Leguineche for a study of the effects of war on children. The newspaper El País awards two prizes in memory of Ortega y Gasset, for reporting and photography respectively, endowed at 2m pesetas each. The Premio de la Crítica (Critics" Prize) for the novel is purely honorific, and carries no endowment. Patronage of culture and the arts is recognized by the award of the Juan Lladó Prize jointly by the Business Foundation and the Ortega y Gasset Foundation; it was won in 1994 by Jesús de Polanco, President of PRISA group, the publishers of El País. The broadcast media also have access to a number of prizes, including the Premio de Las Ondas (Airwaves Prize), instituted by the radio network SER in 1953. Achievement in the film industry is marked principally by the Goya Prizes, awarded by the Academy of Cinema Arts and Sciences; as with the Oscars, there are prizes in numerous sections, such as directing, scriptwriting, camerawork, acting, and overall best film. The Premio National de Cinematografía (National Cinematography Prize) (2m pesetas) was won jointly in 1993 by the director Víctor Erice and the film critic José Luis Guarner (posthumously).

Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture. 2013.

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